a) Cardiovascular Diabetology:
It is the discipline of medicine that studies the relationship among diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular diabetology is the study of the link between heart disease and changes in glucose metabolism. Obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, and ischemic stroke are all risk factors for cardiovascular diabetes.
b) Cardiac Anesthesiology:
Cardiothoracic anesthesiology is a subspecialty of anesthesiology that focuses on the pre-, intra-, and post-operative treatment of patients undergoing cardiac surgery surgery and other treatments. During invasive procedures, these features include the regulation of patient pulmonary physiology by precise and titrated dosing calculations, resuscitative measures, and medicines. This includes managing the cardiopulmonary bypass (heart-lung) system, which is essential in any cardiothoracic operation. It entails the investigation and maintenance of optimal parameters in order to keep vitality in the conscious individual undergoing surgery. It could entail monitoring. Examination of the body Obesity, airway obstruction a suitable selection of Anesthesia, Diseases – Pneumonia, COPD, Cardiac: arrhythmia murmurs, etc.
c) Sports and Exercise Cardiology:
Sports and physical activity Cardiology is a developing discipline of cardiology, or a hybrid specialization that combines cardiology with sports medicine. Sports and Physical Activity Cardiology is committed to the cardiovascular care of athletes and physically active people of all ages, as well as to the advancement of knowledge via education, clinical experience, and research.
Sports cardiology is separated into two sub-areas: a) prevention of cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death in exercising individuals, including those with no known heart disease; and b) prevention of sudden cardiac death in exercising individuals.c) Management of athletes and other physically active people with known cardiac disease.
d) Endocrinology and cardiology:
The human body is a complicated network of links and mechanisms. The interaction of the circulatory system and neuroendocrine pathways plays a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis by responding to numerous endocrine signals. Endocrine signals influencing the cardiovascular system can be classified into two types: those controlled by hormone (E Insulin) and those controlled by second messenger signalling cascades such as cytokines and neurotransmitters. The exclusive study contributes to the pathophysiology understanding of Diabetes, Hypertension, Obesity, Metabolic Syndromes (Glucose Intolerance, etc.), Thyroid Disease, and Cushing Syndrome.
e) Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions:
Catheterization is a cardiology technique that involves inserting a catheter (a thin and flexible tube) through a blood vessel into the heart to diagnose or treat certain heart diseases such as clogged arteries or irregular heartbeats.
Interventional Cardiology is a non-surgical therapy that uses a catheter to repair weakened or damaged vessels, arteries, or other afflicted sections of the heart structure (a small and flexible tube). This approach prevents scarring, pain, and a lengthy post-operative recovery period. Interventional cardiology procedures include angioplasty and valve replacement.