Heart disease is a term used to describe a range of conditions that affect the heart. These conditions include coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and congenital heart defects.
Coronary artery disease occurs when plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, narrowing the arteries and restricting blood flow. Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood effectively. Arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms, while congenital heart defects are present at birth.
Treatment for heart disease may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, eating a heart-healthy diet, and exercising regularly. Medications such as blood thinners, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and blood pressure medications may also be prescribed. In some cases, surgery may be necessary, such as coronary artery bypass surgery or valve replacement surgery. Other treatments may include angioplasty and stenting, implantable devices like pacemakers, or heart transplant for end-stage heart failure.