HYBRID EVENT: You can participate in person at Paris, France or Virtually from your home or work.

3rd Edition of International Heart Congress

June 05-07,2025 | Hybrid Event

June 05 -07, 2025 | Rome, Italy
Heart Congress 2023

ECG in athletes: Limits of normal

Samir Morcos Rafla, Speaker at Cardiovascular Diseases Events
Alexandria University, Egypt
Title : ECG in athletes: Limits of normal


Classification of abnormalities of the athlete's ECG

Group1: common and training-related ECG changes: Sinus bradycardia, First-degree AV block, Incomplete RBBB, Early repolarization, Isolated QRS voltage criteria for LV hypertrophy.

Group2: uncommon and training-unrelated ECG changes: T-wave inversion, ST-segment depression, Pathological Q-waves, Left atrial enlargement, Left-axis deviation/left anterior hemiblock.

The different types of congenital arrhythmogenic syndrome swill be presented, with the specific differential diagnosis.

We feel that this subject of great importance to know or to refresh the already known knowledge.


Professor Samir Rafla graduated from Alexandria University in June 1970. He was resident in the cardiology department then assistant lecturer then lecturer in June 1982. Spent 10 months research fellow in Cleveland clinic Ohio; in the research institute with Late Prof. R. Tarazi and in the electrophysiology department with Prof. James Maloney. Became professor of cardiology in June 1994. Then head of the cardiology department from 1/8/2004 till 30/8/2007. He was appointed in the National council for promotion of professors in cardiology and critical care starting from December 2004 for four years then extended another 4 years as assessor. He is editor in the Egyptian Heart Journal and Heart Mirror Journal. He is Fellow in the American College of Cardiology, Fellow in the European Society of Cardiology, member in EHRA (European Heart Rhythm association), and member in European Association for Echocardiography and Imaging. Member in the steering committee of the Egyptian Cardiac Arrhythmia Association (ECRA). His main areas of interest are in electrophysiology and pacemakers, also in Echocardiography. He published over twenty abstracts and papers outside Egypt and has presented over 300 lectures / chairmanships at national and international meetings. He organized summer meetings of the ECRA group every year starting 1998, at first alone then with Professor Mostafa Nawar. Also was co organizer of the international CardioAlex conference in the years 2005 to 2007.